The Scream actor, 40, completed the rite of passage in Jerusalem at the Western Wall, the holiest place for those of his faith to pray.
"I had my bar mitzvah today at the wall. Finally I'm a man," he posted on Twitter.
David is the youngest of the five acting Arquette siblings: Rosanna, Richmond, Patricia and Alexis – who was born Robert. While their father became a Muslim, their mother was born Jewish, making her children Jewish under the religion's norms.
During the filming of an episode in Jerusalem of his Mile High show, which airs on the Travel Channel in the US, David attended a ceremony and was then asked whether he would like to have one as well.
"He was very emotional, saying he was happy to be part of the chain of the Jewish people," said Shmuel Rabinowitz, the rabbi of the Western Wall, who conducted the ceremony.
"I'm very pleased to see a man who is returning to his roots."
David donned the traditional tallit prayer shawl, and strapped to his arms were tefillin – leather black leather boxes containing scrolls of parchment incribed with verses from the Jewish bible.
The rabbi said David was ashamed by his lack of knowledge about his faith.
Born on a commune in Virginia, he had little contact with Judaism. His maternal grandmother was a refugee of the Holocaust of WWII, but his own mother turned away from religion.
David is currently single after splitting with his reporter girlfriend Christina McLarty in March after a few months of dating.
He separated from Friends star Courteney Cox in summer 2010 after 11 years of marriage.