Court records show that David has filed for divorce from the actress, citing irreconcilable differences in his petition to end their 12-year marriage.
David filed the petition in Los Angeles on Friday, just days before the couple's 13th wedding anniversary and almost two years after they separated.
The paperwork indicates he is self-represented and is not seeking spousal support.
A publicist for the actor declined to comment and Courteney's representatives have yet to make a statement.
David is seeking joint custody of the couple's daughter Coco, who turns eight on Wednesday.
The 40-year-old actor is currently travelling overseas, filming segments for a travel show. He had a bar mitzvah ceremony at Jerusalem's Western Wall on Monday.
David and Courteney met on the set of the film Scream in 1996 (below) and married three years later, just as their characters did in the film series.
They separated formally in October 2010, with Courteney admitting they had grown apart.
"We remain best friends and responsible parents to our daughter and we still love each other deeply," the former couple wrote in a statement released shortly after the split.
David began dating reporter Christina McLarty in March but the couple went their separate ways a few months later.
Courteney gained widespread fame for her role on Friends and currently stars in ABC's Cougar Town.
David is an executive producer of that show and has appeared in numerous films, including Never Been Kissed and 3000 Miles To Graceland.