The 34-year-old said he was "devastated" to be withdrawing from the hit BBC show with the pre-existing condition - Robin missed some of last year's series with a slipped disc, although it was after he and partner Deborah Meaden had been eliminated from the competition.
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Robin Windsor, pictured with dance partner Kristina Rihanoff, has pulled out of Strictly
"It's been a really difficult decision," said Robin, who is dating former X Factor finalist Marcus Collins. "But I plan to focus 100 per cent on my recovery and hope to be back in the ballroom as soon as possible.
"In the meantime I wish the cast and crew best of luck with the new series which I'll be watching every week."
Stepping into Robin's shoes is Australian dance professional Trent Whiddon, who has appeared on Dancing With The Stars in both the US and Australia.
Robin is being replaced by Australian Trent Whiddon, seen here with dance partner Gordana Grandosek
"I'm so excited to have been asked to join Strictly," Trent said of his signing. "It's such an honour to be a part of the show and I can't wait to step onto the famous Strictly dancefloor."
The show's executive producer, Louise Rainbow, said they were "sad to lose Robin from this year's show".
"He is a valued member of the Strictly family and we wish him the very best with his recovery," she added.
"But every cloud has a silver lining and I am delighted to welcome Trent to our team of professional dancers."
Trent isn't the only new face joining the show – Joanne Clifton, sister of dancer Kevin Clifton, and US dancer Tristan MacManus will also be taking part.
Earlier this year, Artem Chigvintsev and James Jordan both confirmed they will not be appearing in the new series, which will be hosted by Tess Daly and Claudia Winkleman following Sir Bruce Forsyth's departure.
Celebrities rumoured to be taking part in series 12, starting in the autumn, include Mark Wright, Ross Kemp, Alan Hansen and Thom Evans, although the line-up will be announced in due course.