The troubled rapper, who has made controversial headlines in the past when he assaulted his ex-girlfriend Rihanna, was arrested two days earlier for assaulting a man outside the luxury W hotel in Washington.
"Chris Brown has elected to enter a rehab facility," his representative told E!.
"His goal is to gain focus and insight into his past and recent behaviour, enabling him to continue the pursuit of his life and his career from a healthier vantage point," the statement continued.
Earlier on Tuesday, the R&B star posted a philosophical tweet which seems to show that the 24-year-old was preparing for the move: "In order to go where u have never gone u have to be willing to go where u never been!!!! #OHB! CBE!"
The singer's attorney, Mark Geragos, dropped him off at a facility in Malibu, LA, accompanied by his mum and on-off girlfriend Karrueche Tran, according to TMZ.
An investigation was held following the incident at the weekend – which saw Chris spend a night in jail – as to whether the rapper had violated his probation in the Rihanna case.
The assault charge was later reduced from a felony to a misdemeanour and, after appearing in court on Monday, the rapper was released without bail.
He was pictured smiling as he left, surrounded by fans and press. He is due back in court on 25 November.
Chris was expected to co-headline a concert with girl band Danity Kane at the Roseland Ballroom in New York on Tuesday night, but he cancelled the gig ahead of checking into rehab.
Chris Brown is still on five years probation for physically assaulting Rihanna in 2009 before the Grammy Music Awards.